Economic and Social Assessment Presentations

Monday General Session

Economic and Social Assessment Theme Panel Review Paper, Chair: Edward Allison and Facilitator:  Carlos Fuentevilla

Tuesday Oral Presentations

Mexico Room (Room D213, Floor 2, Building D)

Kole Fish Culture: an Alternate Option for Increased Fish Production Towards Food Security and Support Livelihood in Drought Prone Northwest Bangladesh, by Md. Israil Golder  & Md. Amimul Ehshan (The People’s Republic of Bangladesh)

Fish culture in a non-traditional waterbody in rivers (kole) is a recent intervention in northwest Bangladesh. Due to natural and manmade causes, the large River Padma shrank and many sections of the river bed are dried up in the dry season, leaving depressions or water pockets along with its narrow water flow. These depressions resemble lakes or ponds, popularly called “kole,” and remain un-inundated for 5-6 months until the next rainy season, offering an opportunity for fish culture. Recently, unemployed youths and fishers near the river-koles were found to use these water-bodies for fish culture in Chapainawabganj district. A preliminary investigation was carried out from January-July 2012 to assess the feasibility of kole fish culture. Within the 4-5 months of the culture period, an average of 767 kg/ha of fish, including 42 kg of wild fish, was produced. Considering growth performances, native and exotic carp species generally used in poly-culture were found suitable. The investigation revealed that the present production level can be increased further with the introduction of appropriate culture techniques. Kole also can be used for raising carp fingerling earlier, when most of the nursery ponds lack the required water. Early availability of fingerlings can enhance profitability and production of fish that ultimately support aquaculture entrepreneurship. It can also generate employment opportunities in this drought prone region. Fish, the major source of animal protein in the daily diet, is mostly supplied from inland aquaculture in Bangladesh. Therefore, both public and private initiatives are suggested to explore these potential water-bodies to ensure food security, support livelihoods of local fishers, and strengthen the local economy.

From Fishing to Farming (Cage Culture) in Lake Jipe, Tanzania, by Fatma A. Sobo (The United Republic of Tanzania), Willy Wiliam Bwemelo, & Ephraim Simon

Tanzania is endowed with marine and freshwater bodies, where fishing activities are concentrated in great lakes, rivers, dams, ponds, wetlands, and marine mostly by artisanal fishers. Studies on fisheries activities were also concentrated on the same, leaving minor water bodies like Lake Jipe unattended even though they have significant economic importance. For many years, fishing in Lake Jipe was done by dug-out canoe with small-size gill nets catching immature fish species (tilapia and catfish). There has been improper management, as the open access nature makes fishers to think of it as a government property. Illegal fishing practices and climate change have resulted into environmental degradation, bringing the collapse of the fishery. The collapse of the fishery of Lake Jipe is due to changes in water quality (increase in salinity and turbidity reported) in the breeding and nursery environments, and an increase in siltation due to increased human activities in the catchments. Expansion of the emergent fringe of macrophytes facilitated by the declining lake level and/or heavy siltation in the lake reduced inflow into the lake, possibly due to increased water abstraction in the catchments and/or interference with initial water flow patterns into the lake by heavy siltation in the wetlands at the mouth of River Lumi. This paper will describe an alternative source of income to local communities by shifting from fishing on Lake Jipe to cage culture. It describes how fishing communities managed to reduce macrophytes from the decreasing lake level to allow cage management for Tilapia species as a way of providing income generating activities.

Livelihoods and Culture of Lake Victoria Fishing Communities, Tanzania, by Paul O. Onyango (The United Republic of Tanzania)

Inland fishing in Africa, especially East Africa, is small-scale in nature. These fisheries, just like it is elsewhere, are under threat of overexploitation. Catches per unit of effort have been going down for a period of time but unfortunately fishers in the lake have not responded in a rational manner, i.e., leaving the fisheries for other better opportunities. Instead they have remained fishing and are not thinking of leaving soon. Of late, fisheries experts have analyzed the fisheries and came up with one suggestion of closing the fisheries at least for a period of time just to enable the fisheries to recover. But this has been met by a very strong opposition from the fishers. Why? This is what I want to address in my talk. I examine the question why fishers have opposed the closure and never want to leave the fisheries. I argue from my research on Lake Victoria fishers that fishing means much more to these fishers than is often realized. To them, fishing is more than just an avenue for income generation; neither is fishing a means of support nor subsistence, as have been argued. Fishing is about their behavior, habits, and culture, it is what makes them who they are and so leaving would simply deny them living life in a manner that life should be lived.

How Much Does Capture Fish Contribute to Rural Livelihoods? A Welfare Approach in The Kingdom of Cambodia, by Eric Baran (The Kingdom of Cambodia), A. Bhatta, S. Saray, V. Simpson, & S. Tan

Freshwater capture fisheries in the Lower Mekong Basin provide 47% to 80% of the animal protein in local diets, and contribute substantially to rural livelihoods. However, the contribution of fish to supporting the different components of livelihoods has never been fully quantified, nor compared to that of agriculture, waged labor, or other activities. In the absence of a solid estimate of the total value of these fisheries, their importance often remains poorly recognized and overlooked in development planning. We present here the approach and preliminary results of a project aimed at filling that gap in Cambodia. The welfare approach developed consists of a quantitative assessment of five components, namely wealth, labor, nutrition, health, and resilience. The latter component is also approached in a qualitative way, aimed at identifying trends and development opportunities.
In this paper, the methodology, implementation – using digital tablets in the field, and preliminary findings are detailed. Results after two years of monitoring of 747 households countrywide show in particular that 63% of rural households in Cambodia are involved in fish catching and fish-related activities and that the average household consumes fish more than five times a week. Final project results, due by the end of 2015, will aid understanding of how fish actually contributes to livelihoods, how this contribution can change over time, and how the contribution of fish to livelihoods can be maximized through interventions and focused policies.

In the Frame: The Role of Women in Inland Fisheries: A Photo-Voice Assessment, by Alison Simmance (The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)Fiona Simmance, & Jeppe Kolding

Gender plays a central role in the different ways by which inland fisheries contribute to food and nutritional security in developing countries. The role of women in inland fisheries is significant, with millions participating in various activities along dynamic capture fishery and aquaculture supply chains. The role of women in inland fisheries, however, is less visible than that of men and has often been overlooked in development discourse. The need for participatory community based approaches has been widely recognized in natural resource management discourse as a means to capture people’s perspectives and empower marginalized groups. The photo-voice methodology is increasingly being used as a participatory tool in health, social, and environmental research but has had little adoption in inland fisheries to date. As part of two larger Ph.D. studies, a modified photo-voice methodology has been developed to open a dialogue with women involved in both capture fisheries and aquaculture in Malawi. Through the lens of women, a snapshot of their activities as well as the importance of the sector to their livelihoods will be documented. The aims of this paper are: (1) to present a modified photo-voice methodology applicable to small-scale fisheries communities based on a review of the literature; and (2) to present details of two case study assessments which will be carried out in Malawi 2015. In combination with traditional social methods, the photo-voice methodology will provide a novel approach to raising the visibility of the neglected role of  women in small-scale fisheries and to overcome gender blindness in existing management and policy discourse.

A Sunrise or a Sunset Sector? Assessing Development, Planning, Investments, GDP Contributions, and Human Resources Development in Indian Fisheries, by Pachampalayam Shanmugam Ananthan (The Republic of India), Gautam Pooja, Palita Nibetita, Anand Ajay, Vichare Priyanka, Debnath Biswajit, Sukham Munil Kumar, V. Ramasubramanian, Mukundan Krishnan, & Lakra Wazir Singh

The rate and quality of fisheries development are to a large extent governed by allocation of budgetary resources, available human resources, and developmental orientation of fisheries departments, besides the availability of water resources, among others. Marshaling comprehensive time series data covering 17 Indian states and India as a whole, this study examines whether budgetary allocations to the fisheries sector have been commensurate with its contribution to state economy and if there is any relationship between fish production trends and budgetary allocations, among others. Though resource endowments and their utilization differed significantly, the GDP contributions have increased significantly in real terms in spite of meagre plan expenditures across states. Witnessing a compounded annual growth rate of 6.5% during last two decades (as high as 11.41% in Haryana), inland fisheries have consistently contributed more to the agricultural GDP within the context of declining crop and stagnant marine sectors. Extension and training programs received less than 10% of budgetary allocations, as major chunks were spent on salary and infrastructure programs. Fisheries departments in some states (Tamil Nadu, Assam, Tripura, Bihar) were staffed adequately, while they were poorly staffed in others (Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh). The relationship between budget allocation, HRD, and fisheries development was not straightforward and is rather mediated by both structural and operational aspects. Illustrating some of successful interventions that made a difference (Matsya Mitra in Assam, fisheries based SHGs in Tripura, aquaculture program in Chhattisgarh), the study provides a blueprint for comprehensive assessment of fisheries development in Indian states.

Freshwater Fisheries Yield Replacement Cost (Land and Water) for Protein and the Micronutrients Contribution in the Lower Mekong River Basin and Related Countries, by David Lymer, Felix Teillard (The Kingdom of Sweden), Carolyn Opio, & Devin Bartley

Freshwater capture fisheries production in the lower Mekong river basin produce between 17 and 22 % of the total official global inland capture fisheries catch. In inland fisheries land-use changes, dam construction and pollution have great effects on the quality and quantity of harvestable resources. It has been estimated that freshwater capture fisheries in the lower Mekong river basin could decline with 880,000 tonnes by 2030 if dam construction proceeds as planned. To better reflect the value of the fish production in the MRC basin, we have calculated the contribution to protein nutrient and mineral requirements and replacement costs in terms of land and water for fish protein for either the fish produced, fish consumed, or projected fish loss to dam construction in four other animal protein sources: beef, chicken (meat and egg), pork, and milk. Overall, our analysis show that freshwater fish is highly valuable as an animal protein source in the four assessed countries and also contributes highly to micronutrient requirements. Replacing the fish protein with other animal protein sources will be costly in terms of land and water, especially for some countries. The loss due to the proposed dam construction in the Mekong River main stream will also incur severe costs in terms of land and water to replace the protein produced.

River Sanctuaries of The Republic of India: Worshipping Endangered Fish and Riversby Parineeta Dandekar (The Republic of India) & Himanshu Thakkar

The Mahseer (Tor sp.) is an endangered fish species, once found in many Indian rivers. Drivers like hydrological modifications by dams and water pollution have resulted in disappearance of prized Mahseer from most of its original geographical range. Despite these odds, some species of Mahseer (Tor torTor khudree) are protected and worshipped through ancient community conservation methods in Temple Fish Sanctuaries on the banks of rivers. Such fish sanctuaries are found in many corners of India: from the World Heritage Site of Western Ghats, to the Eastern Ghats, and to the Himalayas where Tor putitora (Golden Mahseer) is protected. Across these sanctuaries, it is prohibited to hunt fish: any such attempt leads to strong social sanctions. The custom transcends bounds of religions. In the northeastern India, Buddhist tribes called Monpas proactively protect fish in sacred rivers, leading to remarkable conservation of Golden Mahseer and Snow Trouts. Many of these sanctuaries do not receive formal protection and are vulnerable to external pressures, mainly irrigation and hydropower dams. The author has photo-documented several such sanctuaries, including a hereto unknown sanctuary in the Western Ghats. The paper at hand looks at history of fish sanctuaries, associated customs and institutions, current protections, and main threats. The paper looks for a way to build upon this rich heritage, which transcends the boundaries of religion, culture, conservation, and education and is a remarkable example of cultural value of fisheries.

Improving Rural Livelihood through Sustainable Integrated Fish and Crop Production System in Limpopo Province, South Africa, by Jacky Phosa, (The Republic of South Africa)

More than 70% of the Limpopo Province’s inhabitants reside in rural areas where high rates of poverty and malnutrition prevail. The province has about 171 irrigation schemes where there are water storage dams for irrigation. These facilities were underutilised by poor people, who concentrate only on crop production for subsistence. Water storage dams at irrigation schemes could be utilized for integrated fish-crop production as an alternative way to address socio-economic challenges such as malnutrition, lack of income, food insecurity, and unemployment. The objective of the study was to diversify water use for food production, create jobs, generate income, and combat malnutrition by producing cheap protein. The study was conducted in 2012 using a water storage dam of the size of 3,663.52 m². It was rehabilitated and divided into four fish ponds of the average size of 910.82 m². Ponds were stocked with carp, tilapia, and catfish at average mass of 5 g. Used water from fish ponds was directed to crop fields through the pump. The research yielded positive results of up to 2 914 600 tons of fish per annum with the value of US$10 998 490. The average mass of 500 g tilapia, 1.2 kg carp, and 1.5 kg catfish were obtained within a period of four months.

Relative Importance of Fish and Other Protein Sources for the Populations of the Brazilian Amazon Basin, by Victoria Judith Isaac (The Federative Republic of Brazil), M. C. Almeida, & J. Valbo-Járgensen

Water ecosystems of the Amazon basin represent a hydrological complex forming a singular landscape that strongly alternates with rainy seasons and dry periods. This study tests the hypothesis that local fishermen carry out their activities efficiently adapting to the seasonal dynamics of the ecosystem and to the ecology and behavior of the biota. For this we analyzed an unparalleled time series of 12 years of catches by artisanal gillnet fisheries landed in the city of Santarem in the Lower Amazon. The CPUEs of the main caught species were ordered with a principal component ordination and correlations with the space-temporal dynamic were surveyed, seeking to define the seasonal and inter-annual patterns. The results indicate that the fisheries are clearly divided according to the intensity of rainfall. The dry season fishing occurs in the river channel and focuses on large migratory catfish; during the rainy season, fishing is concentrated in lakes and flooded areas of floodplain on smaller species. The main species have different life cycles and alternate in the use of environmental resources available for feeding, spawning, and growth. Among years, changes in productivity were related to the intensity and duration of floods or droughts. It is concluded that despite the lack of technology, the fishermen of the region optimize their efforts, adapting their choices according to the environmental dynamics and biota of the Amazon to maximize their income. Global climate changes and large hydropower construction can affect this delicate adjustment, endangering the food security of these riverine communities.

Lunch break

Using Household Dynamics to Determine the Role of Inland Fish in Local Food Security, by So-Jung Youn (The United States of America), William W. Taylor, T. Douglas Beard, & Robin Welcomme

Inland fish and fisheries play an important role in ensuring food and economic security throughout the world. Freshwater fish production is especially important in the developing world, where it provides a critical source of animal protein, essential micronutrients, and livelihoods for local communities. Despite their importance to food security at a local and regional level, inland fisheries face many threats due to competing uses for freshwater resources. Data concerning the importance of inland fisheries production and consumption are generally poor, often leading to the undervaluation of the importance of inland fisheries as a source of food and wellbeing by many policymakers. Tradeoffs with alternative freshwater uses, particularly irrigation, hydropower, and municipal use, can have a negative impact to food security, health, and societal well-being. One way to obtain more accurate estimates of inland fish production is through the use of household dynamics, which evaluates the underlying structure and nature of changes in households. As such, these studies can quantify the nutritional and food importance of inland fisheries by providing insight into who is consuming fish, how much, and how often. This consumption data can then provide an estimate of inland fisheries production for the area. Better estimates of inland fisheries production could potentially increase the reported inland fisheries production value by nine-fold, based on previous studies, thus allowing for a more accurate assessment of societal impacts of alterations in land- and water-scapes, aiding decision-making regarding the impact of such alterations on inland fisheries and consequently local food security.

Inland Fisheries Continue to Contribute Significantly to Food and Nutrition Security of the Poor, by Shakuntala Thilsted (The People’s Republic of Bangladesh)

Inland fisheries is an important source of fish in the diets of many population groups in developing countries, through consumption of own catch as well as access from local markets. Surveys reveal that the quantity and frequency of consumption of fish from inland fisheries are dwindling. Inland fisheries provide a great diversity of fish species, many of which are small-sized fish and are a particularly valuable animal-source food in the diets of the poor for a number of reasons. They contribute to increasing dietary diversity, supplying multiple essential nutrients, including highly bioavailable minerals and vitamins, essential fatty acids, and animal protein. For example, all small fish eaten whole are very rich sources of calcium and phosphorous; chanda (Parambassis baculis), darkina (Esomus danricus) and dhela (Osteobrama cotio cotio), and mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) found in Bangladesh are very rich in vitamin A. Trey changwa plieng (Esomus longimanus), found in Cambodia, is rich in iron and zinc. In Africa, small fish species, for example, dagaa, mukene, or omena (Rastrineobola argentea) from Lake Victoria, chisense (Microthrissa stappersii, Poecilothrissa moeruensis, and Potamothrissa acutirostris) from Lake Bangweulu, Lake Mweru, and Lake Mweru-wa-Ntipa, and kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae) from Lake Itezhi-Tezhi, Lake Kariba, and Lake Tanganyika make up a large proportion of the animal-source foods consumed by the poor, though frequency of consumption is low and the quantity consumed is small. As fish capture from inland fisheries can be highly seasonal, processing, especially sun drying, gives the possibility to make good use of small fish species which are plentiful and affordable in the peak season. Sun drying reduces weight, which eases transportation and storage, as well as extends the length of storage time and the duration of intake. Traditional products such as dried, salted, smoked, and fermented small fish, as well as fish paste and fish sauce, are made at the household level and bought in small quantities from local markets. Raw and processed small fish are normally cooked as a mixed curry or stew dish, with a little oil, vegetables, and spices. It is reported that these dishes are well-liked, easy to prepare, add taste and flavour to meals made up of large quantities of one staple, for example rice or maize, and further contribute to dietary diversity. A dish with small fish and vegetables can be shared more equitably among household members, including women and young children. With the present focus on nutrition-sensitive agriculture, including fisheries, and the important role that fish can play in improving growth, development, and cognition in the first 1,000 days of life, there is an urgent need to reevaluate the continued significance of inland fisheries for improving the food and nutrition security of the poor.

Nutrition Security of Developing Regions Vulnerable to Decline in Freshwater Fisheries, by Gordon W. Holtgrieve (The United States of America) & E. H. Allison

Freshwater ecosystems are facing a unique and expanding set of environmental challenges that are threatening their ability to provide the goods and services humans depend upon. Among the numerous ecosystem services freshwater provide, a well cited but poorly quantified example is the harvest and consumption of freshwater fish as a key source of nutrition for many poor and food-insecure countries. Because globally available data suggest freshwater capture fisheries represent a relatively small proportion of global fish production, their importance in world food supply is often discounted.  We present a new analysis of global animal-source protein consumption data that demonstrates the high dependence many low-income countries have on freshwater fish for human nutrition.  Combining country-level dependence with information on nutritional status of human populations, environmental threats to freshwater, and potential for countries to adapt, we further identified Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia as the regions most vulnerable to the loss of freshwater fisheries for nutrition security. Countries with the highest vulnerability tend to be low on the economic scale, have low animal and total protein consumption, suffer higher effects of under-nutrition, and have the least amount of environmental protection. With widespread threats to freshwater biodiversity and large and growing populations, this translates into more than 350 million people living in areas categorized in the upper 5% of vulnerability. Together these analyses highlight how changes in the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems, particularly in the developing tropics, are likely to have broad impacts for how impoverished people access nutrition.

Inland Artisanal Fisheries Cooperatives in Crisis: A Case Study of Sociedad Cooperative de Producción Pesquera La Sinaloense, Huizache-Caimanero Lagoon System, Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico, by Silvia Rivera (The Republic of Costa Rica), Jean Desmazes, & Felipe Amezcua

For several decades, small-scale inland fisheries in Latin America have been facing times of economic crises that constantly take them to the limits of disappearance. The challenges that those harvesting organizations face today are not exclusively related to the decline in lagoon system fisheries resources that are result of improper practices such as over-exploitation and poor enforcement and management, but also to socioeconomic factors. Through a case study with a multidisciplinary approach in a community of fishers, we are working on developing a management model for fisheries organizations that integrates public policy and programs aimed at preserving lagoon system resources. This model will contribute to sustained improvement of the quality of life of the members of these organizations, and improve their durability and the responsible exploitation of the resources. The challenge involves contributing to the reconstruction of the social structure to recover the sense of community, this in order to develop collaborative capabilities, reciprocity, and cooperation, which would help fishers consolidate life in the community around a profitable activity.

Bio-economics of Cage Aquaculture Externalities in Lake Volta in Ghana, by Wisdom Akpalu (The Republic of Ghana) & Worku T. Bitew

Capture fish stocks in many parts of the world are facing increasing risk of extinction due to overcapitalization and overexploitation. In the developing world, where many people depend on fish to meet their daily protein requirement, the inadequate production of fish is leading to food insecurity and livelihoods are threatened as a result. For example, it is estimated that Ghana is only able to produce less than one-half of its annual fish protein requirement. As a result, several developing countries, including Ghana, over the past four decades have made attempts at promoting aquaculture to minimize the supply deficit. The response has been encouraging. Beginning 2000, the average annual growth rate of aquaculture farms in Ghana has been estimated at 16% and total fish production is currently estimated at about 12,000 metric tons, with two-thirds of the total output coming from foreign owned companies: Tropo Farms and West African Fish Limited. Cage aquaculture is predominantly done in Lake Volta, which has a land area of 8,442 km² and has 1,200 villages situated along its bank. It is worth noting that significant expansion of aquaculture, specifically cage culture, is likely to generate negative externalities. Studies have found that the cages could negatively impact coastal environment by reducing amenity values as well as impact capture fish stocks. For example, nutrients released by fish farms may result in eutrophication of lakes. This research presents a bio-economic model for cage aquaculture that assess the impact of pollution and foreign capital in aquaculture production. An expression for a corrective tax (pigouvian tax) that internalizes the environmental opportunity cost has been derived. We found that such a tax should depend on some economic and biological parameters. Furthermore, the tax expression is different between a situation with and without foreign capital in fish farming.

Need for Improved Recognition of the True Value of South and East African Inland Fishery Systems, by Mafaniso Hara (The Republic of South Africa), Paul Onyango, Linda Mhlanga, Friday Njaya, Lapo Magole, & Ernesto Poiosse Hele

South and East Africa is endowed with some of the largest and most productive inland fish resources such as Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, Malawi/Niasa, Kariba, Chilwa, Banguelu, the Okavango, and many others. This review and overview will argue that these inland lakes, impoundments, and river systems have far greater value than is accorded to them at the moment. The multitude of values and benefits being derived from these systems by dependent communities and national societies at large include: (formal and informal) employment, income, food security, economic mobility, adaptive livelihood strategies, tourism, contribution to GDP, traditional and cultural practices/value systems, and many others. What should also be notable is the welfare function that these systems play in most fishing communities, thereby contributing to community resilience and stability. These explicit, implicit, intrinsic, and salient values are despite the low priority accorded to the systems by most governments in the region that manifest through low investment and poor governance. By developing novel insights, methods and approaches for demonstrating the true values and benefits of these systems, it is envisaged that governments, donors and society at large would begin to see the sector in better light and give it due consideration in future policies, development planning, and funding.

Can Certification and Ecolabeling Combine Economic and Environmental Benefits in Freshwater Fisheries? by Nicolas L. Gutierrez (The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

Market-based incentives have been conceived to promote the development of sustainable fishing practices and to reduce impacts on associated ecosystems. Of these, certification and eco-labelling has been the most prominent and fastest growing, requiring fisheries to comply with a set of provisions designed to achieve healthy fish stocks, minimize environmental impacts, and promote effective management. In return, eco-labelled products may attract new markets, retain commercial commitments, and attain higher prices and wider consumer acceptability, or a combination thereof. Although the benefits of certification for marine fisheries have been widely documented in the literature, the effectiveness of this market-based tool and the appropriateness of the MSC Standard for freshwater fisheries haven’t been yet evaluated. Here, I present how MSC certification and eco-labelling has provided economic benefits while improving fisheries management practices and delivering environmental and social improvements. Through case studies of freshwater fisheries currently certified, we highlight current and potential direct economic effects of MSC certification, such as price premium, and indirect ones, including efficiency improvements due to better management. Finally, I discuss the role of fisheries certification in potentially achieving higher market values, boosting presence in international trade, and generating greater societal recognition of freshwater fish products.

Controlling Schistosomiasis among Fisherfolk in Uganda, by Melissa Parker (The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

It is widely recognized that the control of schistosomisais in Uganda requires a focus on fisherfolk. Large numbers suffer from this water-borne parasitic disease, notably along the shores of Lakes Albert and Victoria and along the River Nile. Since 2004, a policy has been adopted of providing drugs, free of charge, to all those at risk. The strategy has been reported to be successful, but closer investigation reveals serious problems. This paper draws upon long-term research undertaken at three locations in northwestern and southeastern Uganda. It highlights consequences of not engaging with the day-to-day realities of fisherfolk livelihoods, attributable, in part, to the fact that so many fisherfolk live and work in places located at the country’s international borders, and to a related tendency to treat them as “feckless” and “ungovernable.” Endeavours to roll out treatment end up being haphazard, erratic, and location-specific. In some places, concerted efforts have been made to treat fisherfolk; but there is no effective monitoring, and it is difficult to gauge what proportion have actually swallowed the tablets. In other places, fisherfolk are, in practice, largely ignored, or are actively harassed in ways that make treatment almost impossible. At all sites, the current reliance upon resident “community” drug distributors or staff based at static clinics and schools was found to be flawed.

Community-Based Fish Protected/Sanctuary Management, by Nyro Tum (The Kingdom of Cambodia)

More than 30% of Cambodia’s land area is covered by wetlands, approximately 2 million Cambodians receive livelihood benefits from the fisheries sector, and fish is one of the most important components in the diet for the majority of the Cambodian people. Hence, the fisheries sector plays an essential role in Cambodia’s food supply and a productive and sustainable fisheries sector is vital for enhanced food security, improved livelihoods, and sustainable management of natural resources. It is alarming that overfishing, lost fish habitats due to losses of wetlands, the construction of dams for hydropower, intensification of rice farming, and climate change pose new threats to future fish production. These changes are likely to have a negative impact on the natural resource base and jeopardize the country’s efforts to enhance food and nutrition security. Some of these problems can be addressed by the establishment of community fish protected areas – allowing communities to be involved in managing and arranging sustainable use by themselves – which helps to ease the pressure on wild fish catches, provide complementary fish sources to aquaculture, and have the potential for positive impacts on food and nutrition security in general and the generation of benefits for local communities depending upon artisanal fisheries in particular. Community fish protected areas have the potential to increase fisheries productivity of wetlands and at the same time conserve wild populations of fish species and other aquatic animals. The Royal Government of Cambodia has therefore set the ambitious goal for 1,200 communes to have an effectively operated CFPA each by 2019. Although CFPAs have been established and operated in the country for fairly long time, many of those CFPAs are functioning effectively. At present there is some lack of technical capacity and resources to support dissemination of information on good CFPA management practices to the communities and effective engagement of the communities in implementing good CFPA management practices. There is also great need to strengthen cooperation and networking with stakeholders outside the community in managing CFPAs. The Fisheries Administration (FiA) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has therefore asked the Conservation and Development on Cambodia Organization, CDCam, for technical assistance to improve the management of existing CFPAs. This proposed project will provide technical assistance to build capacity of local authorities and community members in effective operation and management of CFPAs, which will increase the availability of fish from rice field fisheries and contribute to enhanced food and nutrition security as well as reduced rural vulnerability caused by climate change. Based on practical experiences the protected areas or fish sanctuaries that are jointly managed by local communities are well-controlled and managed effectively. As the results, the fish population in respective protected areas had been increasing overwhelmingly – not less than triple on average. Activities and steps that are being implemented to support local communities: demarcating boundaries based on the community map with agreement from the Fisheries Administration and community fishery committees and relevant authorities; installating boundary poles to avoid confusion and conflict between community members or outsiders; installing signboards for awarensess, raising and education among people in communities, with messages such as: “Community Fisheries Protected Area,” “Fisheries Resources Conservation Zone,” “No Fishing in the Protected area,” etc.; dropping artificial reefs for fish and aquatic animal habitats, such as bundles of brush, tree stumps, broken boats or trees, etc.; installing patrol guard watch towers and regularly patrolling of the site, particularly in the low-water dry season; rehabilitating shallow parts of refuge ponds to improve aquatic habitats (this requires adequate discussion and coordination with the relevant Fisheries Adminstration officers); replanting flooded forests around refuge ponds; releasing fingerlings and broodstocks of endangered fish species into community fish protected areas and sanctuaries, as well as other native aquatic animals; supplementing feeding with rice bran, homemade feed, and/or pelleted feed to fish and aquatic animals in protected areas and sanctuaries; and annual monitoring and evaluation to evaluate fish health and densities in protected areas and sanctuaries.

Poster Presentations

Posters are on display in the FAO library (ground flo0r) during all three days of the conference. Poster authors will be present with their posters during the poster session reception on Tuesday at 17:00.

Ethnoicthyology as Subsidy to the Closed Season of Commercial Fish Species in Eastern Amazonia, by Luiza Prestes de Souza (The Federative Republic of Brazil), Jonatas R. Santos, Alexandro C. Florentino, Maria G. M. Soares, & Fabiana C. Cunha

Due to the importance of studies to define the reproductive season, this paper seeks to describe the ethnoichthyological knowledge, using it as a tool to identify the reproductive season of fish species of commercial interest in the city of Pracuuba-AP, Amapá state, Brazil. Semistructured questionnaires were used in the interviews  to record the cognitive aspects of fishermen about fish species mentioned of commercial interest. Thirty-four questionnaires were applied to artisanal fishermen, in two communities, affiliated to the Cologne-Z11 in the period July-August 2012. Divergences concerning the reproductive period and the current law  (closed season) for three fishes were identified: arowana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, trahi­ra Hoplias malabaricus, and traira Hoplias aimara. These species spawn over an extended period and they are indicated as point of conflict between traditional knowledge and the closed season. Other six categories of fish mentioned are not protected by the closed season, but mostly reside in these areas throughout their life cycle like the acara Satanoperca acuticeps, flexeira Hemiodus unimaculatus, pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus, mandubá Ageneiosus inermis, sarda Triportheus brachypomus, and tucunaré Cichla spp. These species are being caught throughout the year. The other 11 species, anujá Parauchenipterus galeatus, apaiari Astronotus ocellatus, branquinha Curimata inornata, pacu-curupeté Tometes trilobatus, jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, matrinchã Brycon amazonicus, pacu Myleus spp. and Mylossoma spp., piau Leporinus spp., tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, and tamuatá Hoplosternum littorale, in the perception of fishermen, have their reproductive period protected in the months stipulated for the closed season.

Evolution of Inland Fisheries in the Countries of SICA, by Reinaldo Rodriguez Morales (The Republic of El Salvador) & Mario R. Gonzalez

The Organization of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector of the Central American Isthmus (OSPESCA) is an agency of the Central American Integration System (SICA). Its member countries are: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Dominican Republic. According to the project “Regional Plan of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture – PREPAC” (OSPESCA 2005) it was estimated that, excluding Belize and Dominican Republic, in 2005 there were 2,303 inland water bodies in 16,011 km² where there are developed inland fisheries, whose products are for self-consumption and trade, mostly nationally. Based on the results of the “Structural survey of artisanal fisheries and aquaculture in Central America 2009-2011″ (OSPESCA), total artisanal fishers in inland waters are 27,550 people, equivalent to 20.3% of marine and inland fishers in the region, distributed in 323 communities and which increased on 96% between 1995 and 2011. Regarding technical aspects, in 2010 there were 15,876 active vessels recorded in inland waters, and the respective catches were 31,556 metric tons. In the phase of processing and marketing, 505 collection centers were recorded. The governance model promoted by OSPESCA within the framework of the sectorial policy of integration is based on regional agreements that have evolved from voluntary to binding, which are approved by its higher authorities. Ministers responsible for fisheries activities have established attention to inland fisheries as a regional priority. In this regard, it has worked on improving the technologies of stocking, harvesting, and marketing.

Reflected on the Neglected: Identifying the Social, Economic, and Ecological Importance of Inland Fish and Fisheries, by Abigail J. Lynch (The United States of America), T. Douglas Beard, Shannon Bower, David B. Bunnell, Steven J. Cooke, Ian G. Cowx, Andrew Deines, Vivian M. Nguyen, Joel Nohner, Kaviphone Phouthavong, Mark Rogers, William W. Taylor, Whitney Woelmer, & So-Jung Youn

Inland fisheries serve as a major source of protein, essential fats, and micronutrients for hundreds of millions of people, particularly in rural households. More than 60 million people in low income countries rely upon inland fisheries as a source of livelihoods and women represent over half the individuals in inland fisheries supply chains. Freshwater ecosystems also provide valuable non-fishing related services including hydropower, drinking water, irrigation for agriculture, and maintaining hotspots of biodiversity. Many of these ecosystem services impact the distribution and productivity of local fisheries. Despite their importance, inland fisheries generally remain economically and socially under-valued and biologically underappreciated because accurate information about these small-scale, highly dispersed fisheries is, inherently, difficult to acquire. Consequently, inland fisheries are often given low priority in policy discussions relative to other uses of water. In this synthesis, we summarize hierarchical discussions among co-authors into a short list of why inland fish and fisheries are important and provide a conceptual model of how these issues are related. We hope this list and conceptual model can help demonstrate the value of inland fish and fisheries to decision makers. Our goal in this exercise is to raise the profile of inland fish and fisheries to better incorporate them in agricultural, land-use, and water resource planning.

Fisheries Related Policies in India: Livelihood-Conservation Paradox, by Madhushree Munsi (The Republic of India) & N. A. Aravind

Freshwater systems provide a wide range of livelihood options to humans. One of the major livelihood options provided is commercial and subsistence fishing opportunities. Fisheries are an important economic sector in India that is not only important for food security but also provides employment opportunities to millions of people. Unrestricted fishing, along with pollution and habitat degradation, have, however, impacted fish populations. Fisheries are often located within complex social systems and thus have major impact on people’s livelihood. With the increasing awareness of the importance of freshwater ecosystems, conservation efforts are being made for conservation of fish and fisheries. Several policies have been devised at the state and national level to regulate fishing. Many of the state fishery policies are aimed at increasing production through scientific fish farming and thus enhancing livelihoods. This study was aimed at understanding how fisheries are regulated under the existing conservation policies. The provisions under state fishery policies were compared with the conservation related policies. The agenda of conservation policies is often contradictory to that of fishery policies. The study shows that state fishery policies aim at increasing fish catch through scientific methods, but several of the state policies on wetland or waterbody conservation ban or restrict fishing. Lack of linkages and coordination among the policies needs to be addressed. Though freshwater systems are more vulnerable than any other ecosystem and thus require immediate conservation efforts, the role of fisheries in enhancing the livelihoods of many communities should be considered while framing any policy.

Inland Fisheries in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities, by Deependra Kafle (The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal), Bup Raj Pandey, & Uddaba Giri

Nepal is a landlocked and an underdeveloped South Asian country which is surrounded by two emerging giants China and India. Inland freshwater resources are very crucial to Nepal, supporting ecosystems and many activities including the fishery industry. A decade long civil war and more than half decade of transitional phase has hindered the country’s developmental process. There is a lack of proper planning, policies, and programs, which is compounded by emigration of energetic and dynamic youths going abroad to seek better livelihoods. More than 60% of the people are under the poverty line and facing starvation. Development of the fishery industry in Nepal may provide a solution for hunger and for improving livelihoods by producing fishes that can be exported and to generate revenue. This development will require changing from the tribal and traditional approach to a more scientific-based approach. To facilitate this change there is an urgent need to develop policies, promulgate rules and laws, increase knowledge, and garner regional cooperation and global support. A first step in this direction is the 2006 interim constitution of Nepal which has the provision of food sovereignty which ensures the food security of its citizens, and it is expected that the new constitution will contain this provision. In this paper we discuss challenges and opportunities of developing Nepal’s fishery, appraise the potential economic changes if the fishery is developed, and discuss the need to amend the policies to coincide with the needs of the nation and to quantify results in monetary and humanitarians aspects.

Measuring the Development of Community-Based Conservation in Small-Scale Fisheries in the Amazon, by Caroline Arantes (The Federative Republic of Brazil), Leandro Castello, Aby Sene-Harper, Nicole Angeli, & David McGrath

Small-scale fisheries engage around 1 billion people worldwide, making it important to understand the governance conditions required to develop effective community-based conservation (CBC). However, most studies on governance focus on small geographic scales, leaving most small-scale fisheries unstudied. We developed an index to measure the development of CBC by quantifying the presence of well-known conditions required for communities to sustainably manage natural resources. We collected data on these conditions from 83 communities via interviews with community members and published literature. We validated the index using data for 36 communities on the populations of Arapaima spp, which is the main focus of CBCs in the Amazon. Finally, we calculated the index for those 83 communities to understand which conditions are met and which are lacking. We found the index to be a reliable indicator of CBC development. We found a positive non-linear exponential, relation, in which increases in the index are followed by minuscule increases in arapaima abundance up to an index of 5.4, at which point small increases in the index are followed by large increases in arapaima abundance. Communities above that threshold had scores related to conditions associated with monitoring systems, graduated sanctions, defined boundaries, and rules for fisheries on average 83% higher than those below the threshold. Policy actions can prioritize the development of these conditions. This approach allows for understandings of CBC development at a large-scale and for prioritizing conservation efforts, which is especially needed where management capacity tends to be underdeveloped, as is in tropical small-scale fisheries.

Decline in Freshwater Natural Resources and Future of Inland Fisheries & Aquaculture: Threatened Livelihoods and Food Security in the Indus Valley, Pakistan, by Muhammad Naeem Khan (The Islamic Republic of Pakistan)

Pakistan is blessed with agriculture and freshwater natural resources, including the River Indus and its rich agriculture valley of five river tributaries; a large manmade irrigation network of canals, earth-filled dams, and barrages; freshwater lakes, flood plains, water logged areas, the Indus delta, and fast emerging inland aquaculture ponds. Agriculture and irrigation remained the hallmark of the famous Indus Valley civilization of Moenjo-daro (4500-2500 BC). Due mainly to the freshwater natural resources of Indus River system, which brings down the freshwater and fertile soil and silt from the Himalayan mountain glaciers, today Pakistan is one of the world’s largest food baskets and producers of cotton (4th ), wheat (7th), rice (14th), sugarcane (5th ), chickpeas (3rd), milk (5th), onions (7th ), apricots (6th), date palms (5th), mandarin oranges (6th), and mangos (7th) . However, inland fish production (6,600 metric tons only) does not commensurate with the potential of these freshwater natural resources compared to the bumper agriculture crops. The sustainability and once agricultural superiority of Indus Valley agriculture for 5,000 years is now under severe threat due to the rapid population explosion of 200 million people, release of untreated industrial and municipal effluents/wastes in the River Indus and other freshwaters, salinity, water logging, global warming, drought, and poor water management, leading to degraded habitat and unhealthy subsistence and artisanal level fisheries. Pakistan is at high risk of food insecurity in the coming decades because of drought, global warming, and climate change. Today, Pakistan is ranked third in the Climate Risk Index of countries having the lowest adaptive capacity. It is universally believed that climate change will not only impact the fishing communities directly but also conceivably affect future freshwater availability and ultimately freshwater fisheries. The paper will discuss growing food insecurity, decline in inland fisheries, and the ecological degradation of freshwater Indus River System, Pakistan.

The Value of Tanzania Fisheries: Assessment of the Contribution of the Sector to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by Lilian Ibengwe (The United Republic of Tanzania) & G. J. de Graaf

Tanzania shares three major inland lakes in Africa: Lake Victoria (51%), Lake Tanganyika (41%), and Lake Nyasa (20%). There are also minor inland lakes, rivers, and dams. The inland fisheries contribute up to 86% of the fish landed and provides employment, food, and foreign exchange earnings. However, the fishery contribution has been underestimated over the past years, and hence not fully recognized as an economic sector that contributes significantly to Tanzania’s gross domestic product (GDP). The published values of fisheries contributions to GDP are estimated by the National Bureau of Statistics as part of the agricultural gross product (AGP), in accordance with International Standard for Systems of National Accounts (SNA). The AGP accounts only for the values of harvest activities, whereas the economic contributions of post-harvest related activities are accounted for under other sectors like manufacturing. This study focused on providing appropriate information on the value of inland fisheries as well as overall value of the fisheries sector. A “production approach method” was used to evaluate the value-added contributions to the national GDP. The analysis found the contribution to GDP for inland fisheries as 2.57%, marine fisheries 0.45%, and aquaculture 0.05%, making the overall sectors’ contribution to GDP at 3.07% (2012) compared to 1.4% published GDP (2012).These findings provide a different perspective on the existing structure of economic activity classifications set by SNA. It calls for improved data collection and information related to fisheries post-harvest activities. At the policy level, there is need to prioritize fisheries development support in the country.

Promoting Ecosystem Resilience by Engaging Women Fishers in Fishery Management on the Sekong River, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, by Charlotte Moser (The United States of America)

This project takes an ecosystems approach to discuss how resilience and social cohesion can be built into inland fisheries in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) by incorporating women and their knowledge into village fishery management. A small landlocked Southeast Asia country experiencing economic growth at a time when the need for adaptation to changing environmental conditions has never been greater, Lao PDR is positioned to promote the nation’s social and economic resilience by adopting policies that support participation by women fishers in decision-making. Based on field work in 2013 funded by CGIAR and conducted in fishing villages on the Sekong River in Attapeu Province in southern Lao PDR, the project looks at the impact of the nation’s first Fisheries Law, adopted in 2009, that requires co-management for village fisheries without stipulating participation by women fishers. Though gender disaggregated baseline data have been available since 2010 documenting that almost one-half of the country’s fishers are women, the economic and social value of women fishers in Lao villages has been largely overlooked. In the traditional gender division of labour in the country’s fisheries, women provide essential labour to men fishing on rivers but they are, almost exclusively, the primary fishers in wetlands, streams, and rice paddies. Wetland catches are increasingly critical for family nutrition as fish stocks are threatened by river water quality degraded by unregulated commercial development. Promoting participation by women fishers would strengthen the co-management model, help ensure greater success of FCZs, and provide skills for women to preserve the fabric of life in Lao fishing villages.

Livelihood and Poverty among Fishers and Non-Fishers in Hirakud Reservoir Region, Odisha, India, by Palita N. Nibedita (The Republic of India), S. Ananthan,  P. Debabrata & V. Ramsubramanian

A field level study was conducted to understand livelihood profiles and poverty incidence among fishers and non-fishers (farmers and farm labour) residing around the Hirakud reservoir periphery, the second largest man-made lake (71,963 ha at full reservoir level) in India located across River Mahanadi in Odisha province. About 14,500 fishers in 159 villages are dependent on Hirakud fisheries. Unlike marine fishers, “fishers” here consisted of several socially diversified groups belonging to not only traditional fishing castes (41%) but agricultural and artisanal castes as well as scheduled tribes and scheduled castes. Both fisher and non-fisher households had diversified occupational profiles (secondary income constituting nearly one-fourth) and often had two or more (including women) earning members supplementing household income. Literacy rates among fishers were still poor (62%) as compared to non-fishers (83%) and the overall district (78.36%). While housing per se did not differ, basic amenities (sanitation, electricity, drinking water) were far better among non-fishers and correlated significantly with higher educational status and health expenditure. Incidence of extreme poverty was 21% among fishers and 3% among non-fishers (if cut off per capita expenditure is PPP $1.25/day), which rose to 64% and 34% respectively if cut-off line is PPP $2/day. Interestingly, as per Gini index values, the depth of poverty (i.e., income inequality) was greater among non-fishers (0.215) and the average rural Indians (0.339) than the fishers (0.158). Highlighting the key features of fisheries development in Hirakud, it suggests ways forward to enhance the individual income and human capabilities.

Economic and Social Analysis of Artisanal Fishermen in Taraba State, Nigeria, by Bernadette T. Fregene (The Federal Republic of Nigeria)

Major rivers and flood ponds in Taraba State are major sources of livelihood for the fishermen and their households. But overfishing and destructive practices have also occurred in some of the water bodies. The study examined characteristics of fishing operations and benefits derived, other sources of livelihood, the profitability of fishermen, and community involvement in the management of the water bodies. A multistage sampling method was used to select fishermen from three Taraba State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Zones, eight local government areas, and 346 (89.18%) from fishermen cooperatives. A total sample of 200 fishermen was used for the study. Qualitative data were obtained from extension personnel of fisheries government agencies and leaders of the fishing communities through in-depth interviews. Quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, profit margin analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Type of fishing gears used, fish species caught, and benefits derived from fishing as well as other sources of livelihood were documented. Taboos and beliefs used by the fisher folks aimed at preserving the fish species and environment of the water bodies are included in the paper. Result of the profitability analysis showed significant difference (α = 0.05) across ADP Zones and water bodies. The paper concludes that management of fish species and their ecosystem are easier if it is an improvement of the community’s practices. It was recommended that a multi-stakeholder process should be used for the attainment of sustainable livelihoods for fishermen and food security.

Status and Potential of the Ornamental Fishery Industry: A Case of Lake Tanganyika, Zambia, by Lloyd Haninga Haambiya (The Republic of Zambia)Danny Sinyinza, Lawrence Makasa, & Amulike Msukwa

The ornamental fish sector is an important and seemingly expanding component of international trade for Zambia. Trade for ornamental fish has grown immensely in the last few years besides that for other fish resources of economic importance from the pelagic fish community composed of six endemic species. Regional export markets are mostly for consumptive value, while international markets trade in ornamental species. However, the scope of this sector and the impact on human and aquatic communities are inaccurately understood and hence unappreciated. On one hand, the industry has the potential to contribute to economic growth and the sustainable development of aquatic resources. On the other hand, it is faced with future challenges pertaining to the environment and social benefits. With oscillation around a declining trend in production from many capture fisheries, there is a need to harness aquatic biodiversity through sustainable harvest. For a developing country like Zambia, an informed harvest of ornamental fish can provide huge economic incentives. This study seeks to investigate the status and potential of the ornamental fishery industry with special reference to Lake Tanganyika in Zambia. The study will endeavor to provide information on the current status of the ornamental stocks viz exploited quantities, their contribution to livelihoods, human-induced and natural processes affecting ornamental fishery habitats, and the impact of the trade on the biodiversity of the lake. The study will suggest appropriate management strategies for the ornamental fishery, proposing monitoring outcomes allowing for modification of management measures as new scientific and socioeconomic information becomes available.

Socioeconomic Impacts of Fisherwomen: A Case Study of Gölyazı Island (Uluabat Lake), Turkey, by Huriye Göncüoğlu (The Republic of Turkey) & Ünal Vahdet

Women in fisheries are generally involved in the marketing or processing sectors, but rarely directly in fishing itself. Thus, there have been relatively few studies on fisherwomen working directly on boats as either crew or skipper. The role of fisherwomen in capture fisheries has not yet been well documented, particularly in the inland fisheries in Turkey. This case study is a preliminary examination of artisanal fisherwomen from Gölyazı Island from Uluabat Lake, which is one of 13 RAMSAR sites in Turkey. The lake is surrounded by 11 villages. Gölyazı, one of the 11 settlements, differs from the other settlements in terms of involvement, as almost 80% of households are primarily dependent on the lake fisheries as their primary source of income. It is known that women from Gölyazı Island have fished for the last five generations in this lake. The aim of this present study is threefold: firstly, to document presence of fisherwomen in inland fisheries in Turkey; secondly, to better understand fisherwomen and their various impacts on Gölyazı (specifically their prominence in the sector, socio-demographic details, and contribution to livelihoods and the local economy); and thirdly, to provide management recommendations for decision-makers. Two questionnaires were prepared to gather data. Face-to-face interviews are still being conducted with fisherwomen, and have already been completed with the head of local fishery cooperative. Results will be evaluated and their outcome can be applied to strengthen a more comprehensive policy framework, which will be brought to the attention of local decision-makers.

Developing an Adaptive Management Approach for Asian Carp: The Need to Include Recreation and Economic Impacts, by Craig A. Miller (The United States of America) & Lama BouFajreldin

Aquatic invasive species cause disruptions in human social and economic, as well as ecological, systems. Asian carp (primarily Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have become abundant on sections of the Illinois River in the state of Illinois, United States of America. Behaviours of these fish include jumping out of the water when scared by loud noises such as those produced by boat motors. Serious injuries have occurred to people struck by jumping carp. Social science research focused on effects of Asian carp on recreation and associated economic impacts is limited and fails to adequately support development of large scale collaborative adaptive management endeavours. A limited study of recreational stakeholders conducted in the middle reach of the Illinois River during 2010 and 2011 suggests participants in recreational boating and angling activities have modified, reduced, or curtailed boating activities based on perceived risks of physical injury associated with the presence of Asian carp. Although this study was limited in scope and was not designed to fully investigate broad recreation and economic impacts resulting from the presence of these fish in the Illinois River, preliminary evidence suggests such behavioural changes are widespread. Such changes in behaviours have potential impacts on local economies that depend on recreation. We outline an adaptive management approach that incorporates: (a) potential social and ecological impacts due to Asian carp; (b) concerns of a broader spectrum of stakeholders along the Illinois River; and (c) projected trend analysis for recreation activities into models for Asian carp management.

Variations of Fisheries Resources in the Yangtze River Basin Resulting from the Three Gorges Project, by Xiaolin Liao (The People’s Republic of China) & J. Chang

The Yangtze River basin contains the most diverse freshwater fish fauna in China with over 360 fish species, including approximately 180 native species. The Three Gorges Project (TGP) on the Yangtze River is one of the largest hydro projects in the world. Closure of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) was completed in 1997 and the water level reached175 m above sea level after full impoundment in 2010. The inundation zone extends over 600 km upstream and rapidly altered fish habitat and spawning grounds as the inundation zone was transformed from a lotic to a lentic ecosystem. Furthermore, the TGP increased mean water temperature and decreased mean discharge, affecting reproduction in many fish species. After analyzing data from recent studies on the ecological effects of the TGP, we reached the following conclusions regarding TGP impacts on fisheries resources in the Yangtze River basin: (1) changes in the TGR fish communities reflect the change from lotic to lentic; (2) lotic species migrated to upper reaches above TGR or up into tributaries, changing the location of spawning grounds; (3) the number of invasive species increased while populations of native species decreased in the TGR; (4) spawning in several species (including the Chinese sturgeon and four carp species) is occurring later due to increased water temperature downstream from the dam, resulting in decreased larval abundance, increased mortality rates, and a significant decline of fisheries resources in the middle-lower Yangtze River.

Biological and Socioeconomic Assessment of the Fishery in Nuwara-wewa Reservoir: A Tool for Effective Fisheries Management, by R.M. Rajapaksha Gayani (The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka) & T.V. Sundarabharathy

Inland fishery operations generate livelihoods for man as well proteins for their nutrition. Nuwara-wewa, a perennial city tank, has an established capture fishery for dry zone people in Anuradapura area. The study was aimed to assess biological and socioeconomic statuses of the fishery to predict and establish effective management approaches. Fish catch data viz; number of boats, net pieces, weight of the total catch, and catch composition and all aspects of socioeconomic status of the community and present management strategies were collected by visiting the landing sites for six month period. Data were analyzed by SPSS and MS Excel software. Average fish catch and CPUE were 148.4 kg/day and 4.65 kg/boat/day respectively. Commercial fish catch consisted of 9 families in the majority, including exotics (Oreochromis niloticus and O. mossambicus) and a minority of indigenous Etroplus suratensis. Although bycatch and undersized gill net catches showed the presence of minor cyprinids in manageable levels, no one had clear idea of their general stock sizes. Among 125 registered fishermen, only 40 attended as active fishers. Contribution of males for fishing and marketing were 93%, with 7% from females and 39% represented the 30-40 age category and 2% were above 60 years. Although illiterate, primary, and secondary education categories represented as 9%, 68%, and 23% respectively, and 52% have being working as a fishermen for more than 10 years, there was no significant (P>0.05) relationship between their education level and income or experience and income. Fishery society was slumping. In general, the fish production and socioeconomic status of the fishing community of Nuwara-wewa were not at a satisfactory level. Community specific management strategies are intended to compensate for the demand and supply, overcoming shortages of fish stocks and establishing stable market channels. Uplift of the livelihoods of the fishermen needs to have well-structured awareness and monitoring programmes, and subsidizing the system either from the government sector or non-government organizations with the active participation of the community.